We continue our review of the multiple health effects of water soluble or hydrated fullerenes (C60-HyFN's) Today we look at type 1 diabetes.
NANO-PARTICLES OF WATER-SOLUBLE FULLERENE C60 REVERSE CYTOSKELETAL ALTERATIONS AND ATTENUATE OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN OF DIABETIC RATS Tykhomyrov A.A.1, Nedzvetsky V.S.2, Andrievsky G.V3.
1 - Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian University; Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine; E. mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 - Dnipropetrovsk National University; Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine;
3 - Institute of Physiologically Active Compounds, Kharkiv, Ukraine. E. mail: email@example.com
Diabetes mellitus is the most common serious metabolic disorder. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes is a well-characterized experimental model for insulinopenic Type I diabetes mellitus and provides a relevant example of endogenous chronic stress. The present study examined the protective effect of hydrated form of fullerene C60 (C60HyFn) against reactive gliosis and oxidative stress in rat brain affected by STZ-induced diabetes. Reactive astroglia displays both increasing cell hypertrophy and proliferation. It is accepted that one of the main feature of astrogliosis is elevation of synthesis of cytoskeletal intermediate filament protein - glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Wistar rats were injected with STZ (50 mg/kg body weight) to induce hyperglycaemia. Diabetes caused a significant increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidative modification (POM) levels in the brain tissue. Furthermore, diabetic rats were characterized by marked elevation in the level of GFAP in hippocampus and frontal cortex. It has been shown a strong correlation between severity of oxidative injury, astroglial reactivity and behavioral disturbance in hyperglycemic rats. Alterations of metabolism and morphology of astrocytes could interfere the recycling of neuromediators, expression and operation of adhesion molecules as well as energetic supplement of neuronal cells. This may lead to the disturbing of glial-neuronal interaction and sequent learning and memory impairment. It has been found that injections of C60HyFn in nano-molar concentrations significantly reduced both LPO and POM levels in STZ-treated rats. Moreover, C60HyFn administration has normalized the expression of GFAP and decreased the level of glial reactivity. The above mentioned effects can be explained by high efficacy of chemically non-modified C60-fullerene at regulation of free radical processes in nervous tissue. Besides, ?60HyFn has been observed to possess sedative and adaptogenic effects preventing behavioral disturbance accompanying diabetic neuropathy. C60HyFn acts as effective antioxidant displaying beneficial effects under hyperglycaemia but not affecting significantly the sugar level in blood.