Ebola Viral Disease Outbreak — West Africa, 2014
On June 24, 2014, this report was posted as an MMWR Early Release on the MMWR website (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr).
June 27, 2014 / 63(25);548-551
Meredith G. Dixon, MD1,2, Ilana J. Schafer, DVM1,2 (Author affiliations at end of text)
On March 21, 2014, the Guinea Ministry of Health reported the outbreak of an illness characterized by fever, severe diarrhea, vomiting, and a high case-fatality rate (59%) among 49 persons (1). Specimens from 15 of 20 persons tested at Institut Pasteur in Lyon, France, were positive for an Ebola virus by polymerase chain reaction (2). Viral sequencing identified Ebola virus (species Zaïre ebolavirus), one of five viruses in the genus Ebolavirus, as the cause (2). Cases of Ebola viral disease (EVD) were initially reported in three southeastern districts (Gueckedou, Macenta, and Kissidougou) of Guinea and in the capital city of Conakry. By March 30, cases had been reported in Foya district in neighboring Liberia (1), and in May, the first cases identified in Sierra Leone were reported. As of June 18, the outbreak was the largest EVD outbreak ever documented, with a combined total of 528 cases (including laboratory-confirmed, probable, and suspected cases) and 337 deaths (case-fatality rate = 64%) reported in the three countries. The largest previous outbreak occurred in Uganda during 2000–2001, when 425 cases were reported with 224 deaths (case-fatality rate = 53%) (3). The current outbreak also represents the first outbreak of EVD in West Africa (a single case caused by Taï Forest virus was reported in Côte d'Ivoire in 1994 ) and marks the first time that Ebola virus transmission has been reported in a capital city.
Assessment of potential zoonotic disease exposure and illness related to an annual bat festival--Idanre, Nigeria.
Bats provide vital ecologic services that humans benefit from, such as seed dispersal and pest control, and are a food source for some human populations. However, bats also are reservoirs for a number of high-consequence zoonoses, including paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and lyssaviruses. The variety of viruses that bats harbor might be related to their evolutionary diversity, ability to fly large distances, long lifespans, and gregarious roosting behaviors. Every year a festival takes place in Idanre, Nigeria, in which males of all ages enter designated caves to capture bats; persons are forbidden from entering the caves outside of these festivities. Festival participants use a variety of techniques to capture bats, but protective equipment rarely is used, placing hunters at risk for bat scratches and bites. Many captured bats are prepared as food, but some are transported to markets in other parts of the country for sale as bushmeat. Bats also are presented to dignitaries in elaborate rituals. The health consequences of contact with these bats are unknown, but a number of viruses have been previously identified among Nigerian bats, including lyssaviruses, pegiviruses, and coronaviruses. Furthermore, the caves are home to Rousettus aegyptiacus bats, which are reservoirs for Marburg virus in other parts of Africa.
Cytotoxic and antiviral properties of fullerene C60 in the culture of animal cells
Zinaida Klestova, Dr., Ph.D.*, Yuriy Prylutskiy, Dr., Ph.D.,** Marina Marchenko Ph.D. Student ***
*State Scientific-Control Institute of Biotechnology and Strains of Microorganisms (Donetskaya St, 30,Kyiv-151, Ukraine);
**National Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Volodymyrska Str. 64, 01601 Kyiv, Ukraine
***The Institute of Veterinary Medicine of NAAS (Donetskaya St. 30, Kyiv-151, Ukraine)
One of the urgent problems of modern veterinary biotechnology is to solve the complex task that lies at the intersection of chemistry, physics, materials science, biology, veterinary medicine is focused design, synthesis and study of the functional properties of nanomaterials which characterized by high bioavailability and biocompatibility, low toxicity and high specific biological activity.
In our studies, was used C60 fullerene - fullerene in water-soluble form. This compound molecule is nearly spherical, with a diameter of 0.72 nm , the surface of which consists of 60 carbon atoms connected by single or double chemical called " links. Considered that C60- fullerenes are potential pharmaceutical compounds. However, along with a broad perspective on the use of such substances for the prevention and treatment of diseases, there are certain precautions, particularly with regard to the possible toxic effects on biological objects, including on cell.
Therefore, our research started with the determination of cytotoxic properties of C60 fullerene - on cell line BHK -21, which is continuous line origin from Syrian hamster and which is used in many medical and biological research.
In experiments used at least ten holes in plates with cell culture for each drug dilution in culture medium. The plates with cell culture incubated at +37˚ C with 5% СО2 for 96 hours.
Thus, we have found the maximum cytotoxic concentration of compound that was 0,0375 ±0,003 mg/ml (n=3,).
Determined the antiviral activity of C60 - fullerene, using as a biological model coronovirus (virus of transmissible gastroenteritis of swine). Coronoviruses affect both animals and humans, leading in many cases to a high degree of mortality. Investigation of antiviral activity of fullerene on transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine in the system in vitro, n = 5 (each concentration: 0,15 , 0,075, 0,0375, 0,019, 0,009, 0,005 was tested in 10 holes).
We found that C60-fullerene reduced the infectious properties of the virus by 2.0 TCID 50/ml which is a significant result.
Therefore, preliminary data suggest recommend this compound for further preclinical and clinical studies.
Source: Lviv Nanotechnology Conference August 2014 http://www.iop.kiev.ua/~nanotwinning/conference2/