#PTSD PTSD is triggered by excess oxidative stress or free radicals which are neutralised by Carbon 60 hydrated fullerenes, the highest natural antioxidant in the world https://www.academia.edu/11621073/Backgrounder_on_Carbon_60_Hydrated_Fullerenes_V6
PTSD and Oxidative Stress-Connect the DOTS
Coll Antropol. 2011 Dec;35(4):1155-60.
Oxidative stress markers in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.
- 1University of Zagreb, Dubrava University Hospital, Clinical Department of Laboratory Diagnostics, Zagreb, Croatia. email@example.com
Recent study data support the role of oxidative stress in diverse psychiatric disorders. Oxidative stress results from an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance, an excess of oxidants and/or a depletion of antioxidants. There are numerous studies that indicate that free radicals (FRs) damage neurons, and then play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and depression. Active oxygen can cause considerable damage and disrupt the important physiological functions of proteins, lipids, enzymes and DNA. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible differences in the concentration of tromboxane B2, 8-OHdG and protein carbonyls, as significant markers of oxidative damage, and urate, albumin and total protein concentrations as antioxidative molecules in PTSD patients in comparison to the healthy control group. The study included 74 male participants who were active soldiers in the Croatian armed forces from 1991 to 1995. 46 subjects with chronic and current PTSD were recruited from the Department of Psychiatry of Dubrava University Hospital during 2010, 28 healthy subjects were recruited in the same period during the regular medical examination at the Dubrava University Hospital.
Curr Neuropharmacol. Mar 2014; 12(2): 193–204.
Published online Mar 2014. doi: 10.2174/1570159X11666131120223530
Oxidative Imbalance and Anxiety Disorders
Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
* Address correspondence to these authors at the Departamento de Bioquímica, ICBS, UFRGS, Ramiro Barcelos, 2600 (Anexo) Lab. 37. 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil; Tel: 55 51- 3316-5570; Fax: 55 51- 3316-5535; E-mails: rb.moc.oohay@lehcarwolork, Email: rb.moc.oohay@zamladalrac
The oxidative imbalance appears to have an important role in anxiety development. Studies in both humans and animals have shown a strong correlation between anxiety and oxidative stress. In humans, for example, the increased malondialdehyde levels and discrepancies in antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes have been observed. In animals, several studies also show that anxiety-like behavior is related to the oxidative imbalance. Moreover, anxiety-like behavior can be caused by pharmacological-induced oxidative stress. Studies using knockout or overexpression of antioxidant enzymes have shown a relationship between anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress. Related factors of oxidative stress that could influence anxious behavior are revised, including impaired function of different mitochondrial proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and neurotrophic factors. It has been suggested that a therapy specifically focus in reducing reactive species production may have a beneficial effect in reducing anxiety. However, the neurobiological pathways underlying the effect of oxidative stress on anxiety symptoms are not fully comprehended. The challenge now is to identify the oxidative stress mechanisms likely to be involved in the induction of anxiety symptoms. Understanding these pathways could help to clarify the neurobiology of the anxiety disorder and provide tools for new discovery in therapies and preventive strategies.
Keywords: Antioxidants, anxiety disorders, anxiolytics drugs, genetics, inflammation, mitochondrial, neurotrophic factor, reactive species.
Anxiety is defined as a state of uneasiness and apprehension. It is a general term that describes a large range of related and commonly experienced subjective mental states which are normally evoked by a wide range of external and internal stressors. Anxiety is a normal emotional response but when it is inappropriate (at in inappropriate time or to an inappropriate degree, and is disruptive to the individual), it then constitutes an anxiety disorder [1, 2]. This condition is implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders, such obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), social phobias (SP), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) .