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Research has shown that 90% of all cancer deaths are due to cancer metastasis. Cancer can only spread in the body when we have an environment of excess free radicals or oxidative stress. An ultra-high, universal, antioxidant like Carbon 60 hydrated fullerenes neutralize free radicals and prevent cancer metastasis.
Factsheet #6 Link between Oxidative Stress, Free Radicals and Cancer v4
Time Magazine and National Geographic both recently ran cover stories with a baby on the cover. The tagline reads: This baby could live to be 142 years old. So the question that immediately comes to mind is: Is this possible and can everyone age gracefully without chronic human diseases? And can we do it with today’s technology ?
To explore this question we first need to compare the mortality in 1900 versus today. In 1900, half of the deaths were caused by pneumonia, influenza, tuberculosis, gastrointestinal infections. These diseases were cured largely with antibiotics and antivirals after world war two. Cancer, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and Alzheimer’s were present but not near the rates we see today. Now, the top causes of death today, according to US statistics are heart disease, lung cancer, lung disease (asthma) , stroke, Alzheimer’s, diabetes and hypertension. An interesting question to ask would be: Do all these new, twenty first century diseases all have something in common, just like the top causes of death in 1900 where from bacterial or viral sources? A review of the medical literature shows two primary causes. In turns out that most chronic human diseases are 1) triggered by excess free radicals or oxidative stress and 2) are the result of a lack of essential minerals and trace minerals and cofactors in our diets.
Free radicals or oxidative stress is the result of our cells metabolizing or breathing oxygen. Free radical are the “waste” products of life, and they are very destructive to cell membranes, proteins and DNA. Our body has a natural protective system-antioxidant enzymes that neutralize excess free radicals. If this delicate balance is disrupted, this then leads to an inflammation response in the body and eventually, chronic diseases could ensue. As we age, our natural antioxidant protective systems decline and we are told to supplement with natural botanical antioxidants, such as blueberries , green tea or cinnamon or antioxidant supplements such as Vitamin E or coenzyme Q10. But then we run into the “antioxidant paradox”. All these food antioxidants work great as antioxidants in a test tube in the lab, but in human clinical trials, the beneficial effects are either inconclusive or negative. This is because saliva and gut bacteria metabolise many these botanical antioxidants, before they have a chance to act beneficially.
Ukrainian scientists discovered the world’s highest antioxidant called Carbon 60 hydrated fullerenes, which is stable and inert and not metabolised by bacteria. Carbon 60, a natural product, was discovered in 1985 and a Nobel prize in Chemistry was awarded for this discovery in 1996. Scientists and doctors were calling it the panacea or silver bullet in medicine, but because it’s not naturally water soluble, just like diamonds, charcoal or activated charcoal, this frustrated scientists. Ukrainian scientist in Kharkiv the first to discovered how to dissolve Carbon 60 in water in 1994. After 20 years of preclinical, safety and clinical studies, Carbon 60 hydrated fullerenes were approved as a “dietary supplement” by the Ukrainian Ministry of Health and has been on the Ukrainian market since 2010. There is now a US patent pending. Scientists are now claiming that most chronic human diseases are triggered by excess free radicals. Just do a search on PUBMED with the key words “oxidative stress” and your own disease and you will find a link. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed ). Reduce excess free radicals and reduce your disease symptoms. A study at the University of Paris in 2010 showed that rats feed a diet supplemented with Carbon 60 in olive oil, increased the lifespan of rats by 90% from an average of 25-30 months to over 55 months.
Essential minerals and trace minerals.
The National Post ran a story on May 1- “Obese Canadians should be granted legal protection from discrimination, professor says.” The obesity debate is totally missing the point. Most Doctors are ignoring their own medical research. The cause of the 400% increase in obesity in last 3 decades in Canada and sharp rise in most other chronic human diseases since the 1930’ is due to a chronic lack of essential minerals and trace minerals in our diet (plants, fruits and vegetables) that are needed as co-factors in the body for our biochemical pathways to work efficiently.
The soil minerals concentrations have been dropping worldwide for the last 100 years, so less and less minerals are absorbed in fruits, vegetables and other plants. This is due primarily to the fact that we no longer cook and heat our homes with wood and throw away the ashes (95% minerals) back into the garden to replenish the soil with the 60 essential and trace minerals that our bodies need. Fertilizer only has 3 minerals. Even the nutritional supplements commonly found in most health food stores don't carry the full complement of 90 essential nutrients, which should include 60 essential minerals, 15 essential vitamins, 12 essential amino acids and 3 fatty acids and the right doses of each and the correct easily absorbable mineral salts.
How do we know that we need 90 essential nutrients? Just talk to any veterinarian. Vets have cured over 600 chronic human diseases in farm animals and in zoo animals by supplementing their food with nutritional pellets. When was the last time you saw a cow with arthritis and a pig with Alzheimer’s? Vets have to cure an animal after the first time otherwise beef would cost over $500 a pound or eggs $50 a dozen. Why? Because animals don’t have health insurance. Doctors are quite content to treat your disease symptoms for the rest of your life, billing health insurance and not curing your disease after a few visits. Human clinical studies in the past 40 years have shown that most chronic human diseases are also caused by essential mineral deficiencies and can be controlled with the proper essential and trace minerals. Diabetes has been controlled with the right amount of chromium and vanadium and other essential cofactors. Arthritis is a lack of proper calcium absorption and cofactors such as Vitamin D and magnesium. Greying hair is a copper deficiency in the diet.
So can we live to be 100 or over without chronic human diseases? Yes by reducing excess oxidative stress or free radicals in our body and ensuring that we get the right daily balance of 90 essential nutrients including 60 minerals and trace minerals.
If you would like more information on the above or a copy of my presentation on Aging Gracefully without Chronic Human Diseases that I gave at Ukrainian Canadian Social Services last week, send me an email email@example.com or call (416) 819-9667 or download it from this link http://bit.ly/1KzZvm8 For Ukrainian listeners, catch my Ukrainian radio interview on Radio KONTAKT archives from Saturday April 25, 2015 http://www.kontaktglobal.com/radio-saturday.html
Walter Derzko is the president of the startup C60 Water North America
I’m adding a link to a presentation I gave last week to a group of seniors at the Ukrainian Canadian Social Services –Toronto Branch on Aging Gracefully without Chronic Human Diseases. It’s designed for a non-technical, layperson audience. You can download it from the link below.
New imaging tech lets scientists 'paint' a target in a living subject and watch it work -- with unprecedented sensitivity and precision
IMAGE: A new single-molecule imaging technique developed at USC provides new insights into the role of dystrophin proteins for muscle function in Caenorhabditis elegans worm models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Scientists at USC have developed a new microscopy technology that allows them to view single molecules in living animals at higher-than-ever resolution.
Dubbed "Complementation Activated Light Microscopy" (CALM), the new technology allows imaging resolutions that are an order of magnitude finer than conventional optical microscopy, providing new insights into the behavior of biomolecules at the nanometer scale.
In a paper published on Sept. 18 by Nature Communications, the researchers behind CALM used it to study dystrophin – a key structural protein of muscle cells – in Caenorhabditis elegans worms used to model Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most severe and most common form of the degenerative disease.
The researchers showed that dystrophin was responsible for regulating tiny molecular fluctuations in calcium channels while muscles are in use. The discovery suggests that a lack of functional dystrophin alters the dynamics of ion channels – helping to cause the defective mechanical responses and the calcium imbalance that impair normal muscle activity in patients with muscular dystrophy.
Ten Times the Precision of Optical Microscopy
CALM works by splitting a green fluorescent protein from a jellyfish into two fragments that fit together like puzzle pieces. One fragment is engineered to be expressed in an animal test subject while the other fragment is injected into the animal's circulatory system.
When they meet, the fragments unite and start emitting fluorescent light that can be detected with incredible accuracy, offering imaging precisions of around 20 nanometers. Conventional optical microscopy of living tissues can only achieve a 200 nanometer resolution at best. For scale, a sheet of paper is 100,000 nanometers thick.
"Now, for the first time, we can explore the basic principles of homeostatic controls and the molecular basis of diseases at the nanometer scale directly in intact animal models," said Fabien Pinaud, assistant professor at the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences and lead researcher on the project.
Pinaud collaborated with scientists from the University Claude Bernard Lyon in France and the University of Würzburg in Germany.
Building the Tools for Tomorrow's Research
The new technology lies at the heart of the convergence of science and engineering at USC, where researchers from both fields collaborate to create the tools that make scientific and medical breakthroughs possible.
"There are trillions of proteins at work on an infinitely small scale at every moment in an animal's body. The ability to detect individual protein copies in their native tissue environment allows us to reveal their functional organization and their nanoscale molecular behaviors despite this astronomical complexity," Pinaud said.
Next, Pinaud and his colleagues will focus on engineering other colors of split-fluorescent proteins to image the dynamics of individual ion channels at neuromuscular synapses within live worms.
"It so happens that the same calcium channels we studied in muscles also associate with nanometer-sized membrane domains at synapses where they modulate neuronal transmissions in both normal and disease conditions," Pinaud said. Using multi-color CALM, his team and collaborators will probe how these tiny active zones of neurons are assembled and how they influence the function of calcium channels during neuron activation.
This research was funded by USC startup funds and the computational work was supported by the USC Center for High-Performance Computing and Communications.
Research has shown that C60 Hydrated Fullerenes (HYFNs) inhibit viral reverse transcriptase and blocks other receptor sites (RNA polymerase) needed for viral replication.
Example 1 of 3
Antibiot Khimioter. 2004;49(12):3-8.
[HIV reproduction inhibition by amino acid and dipeptide derivatives of fullerene C60].
[Article in Russian]
Miller GG, Romanova VS, Pokidysheva LN, Titova IV, Kaliberda EN, Rumsh LD, Andreeva OI, Rybalkin NP.
Target-aimed synthesis of a new class of water soluble amino acid and dipeptide derivatives of fullurene (C60 - X) for inhibition of specific virus enzymes, i.e. protease and reverse transcriptase of HIV (P HIV and RT HIV) in cell culture lytic and chronic infections was performed. Out of 13 tested substances, 8 showed inhibitory activity and 5 were effective in pharmacological doses (ID50 varied within 0.46 to 1.0 mcm/ml with respect to the lytic infection and 5.0 to 12.5 mcm/ml with respect to the chronic infection). The activity of (1), (2), (6), (7) and (8) was comparable to that of azidothymidine, a nucleozide inhibitor of RT HIV in the cell culture lytic infection. The substances also showed marked virucidal action. The cytotoxicity (survival, antiproliferative effect) varied from low to very low with respect to the rapidly dividing cells MT4 and HTHIV27 (CD50 > 200-800) and was somewhat higher with respect to PBL (CD50 > 100). The selectivity index (SI = CD50/ID50) was equal to 165-2000 for various samples. The prototype derivatives (1) and (2) had a selective (competitive) inhibitory action on the recombinant protease of HIV with IC50 = 1.25-2.76 mcM, while derivatives (1), (la) and (2) had a noncompetitive inhibitory action on the recombinant reverse transcriptase of HIV (Ki = 7.9-12.1 mM). The pharmacokinetic study of the prototype derivative (1) on laboratory animals revealed no acute or chronic toxicity up to the terminal high concentrations. As for (1), its high interspecies (mice--rabbits) relative bioavailability equal to 110% was shown.
PMID: 16050493 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Example 2 of 3
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Feb 15;15(4):1107-9.
Human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase inhibition and hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibition activities of fullerene derivatives.
Mashino T1, Shimotohno K, Ikegami N, Nishikawa D, Okuda K, Takahashi K, Nakamura S, Mochizuki M.
Abstract We examined the human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase and hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibition activities of cationic, anionic, and amino acid-type fullerene derivatives. Among the fullerene derivatives, the amino acid-type fullerene derivative was the most efficient in human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase inhibition.
PMID: 15686922 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Example 3 of 3
Cytotoxic and antiviral properties of fullerene C60 in the culture of animal cells Zinaida Klestova, Dr., Ph.D.*, Yuriy Prylutskiy, Dr., Ph.D.,** Marina Marchenko Ph.D. Student *** *State Scientific-Control Institute of Biotechnology and Strains of Microorganisms (Donetskaya St, 30,Kyiv-151, Ukraine); **National Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Volodymyrska Str. 64, 01601 Kyiv, Ukraine ***The Institute of Veterinary Medicine of NAAS (Donetskaya St. 30, Kyiv-151, Ukraine)
One of the urgent problems of modern veterinary biotechnology is to solve the complex task that lies at the intersection of chemistry, physics, materials science, biology, veterinary medicine is focused design, synthesis and study of the functional properties of nanomaterials which characterized by high bioavailability and biocompatibility, low toxicity and high specific biological activity. In our studies, was used C60 fullerene - fullerene in water-soluble form. This compound molecule is nearly spherical, with a diameter of 0.72 nm , the surface of which consists of 60 carbon atoms connected by single or double chemical called " links. Considered that C60- fullerenes are potential pharmaceutical compounds. However, along with a broad perspective on the use of such substances for the prevention and treatment of diseases, there are certain precautions, particularly with regard to the possible toxic effects on biological objects, including on cell. Therefore, our research started with the determination of cytotoxic properties of C60 fullerene - on cell line BHK -21, which is continuous line origin from Syrian hamster and which is used in many medical and biological research. In experiments used at least ten holes in plates with cell culture for each drug dilution in culture medium. The plates with cell culture incubated at +37˚ C with 5% СО2 for 96 hours. Thus, we have found the maximum cytotoxic concentration of compound that was 0,0375 ±0,003 mg/ml (n=3,). Determined the antiviral activity of C60 - fullerene, using as a biological model coronovirus (virus of transmissible gastroenteritis of swine). Coronoviruses affect both animals and humans, leading in many cases to a high degree of mortality. Investigation of antiviral activity of fullerene on transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine in the system in vitro, n = 5 (each concentration: 0,15 , 0,075, 0,0375, 0,019, 0,009, 0,005 was tested in 10 holes). We found that C60-fullerene reduced the infectious properties of the virus by 2.0 TCID 50/ml which is a significant result. Therefore, preliminary data suggest recommend this compound for further preclinical and clinical studies.
[N.B. C60 Hydrated Fullerenes neutralize excess free radicals or oxidative stress in the body--W.Derzko]
OXIDATIVE STRESS PREDICTS HIP FRACTURE Elizabeth Hofheinz, M.P.H., M.Ed. • Thu, August 28th, 2014 http://ryortho.c...om/breaking/oxidative-stress-predicts-hip-fracture/ Researchers from the University of Cincinnati (UC), Harvard School of Public Health, and Harvard Medical School have found that oxidative stress is a significant predictor for hip fracture in postmenopausal women. The study appears online ahead of print in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. The research was led by Tianying Wu, M.D., Ph.D., an assistant professor in the UC College of Medicine Department of Environmental Health, and Shuman Yang, a postdoctoral fellow in the department. The team evaluated participants from the Nurses’ Health Study, and measured oxidative stress by noting fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP) in blood plasma. “To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study among postmenopausal women demonstrating that oxidative stress was a significant predictor for hip fracture,” said Dr. Wu in the August 14, 2014 news release. According to the news release, a total of 996 women aged 60 or older were measured at baseline blood collection (1989-1990). “Plasma FlOPs were measured at three excitation/emission wavelengths: 360/420 nm (nanometers), named as FlOP_360; 320/420 nm, named as FlOP_320; and 400-475 nm, named as FlOP_400. FlOP_360 represents oxidation products that are generated from oxidized phospholipids or from lipid oxidation products reacting with proteins. FlOP_320 is formed when oxidation products such as lipid hydroperoxides, aldehydes and ketones react with DNA in the presence of metals. FlOP_400 reflects the interaction between malondialdehyde (a specific marker for lipid oxidation), proteins and phospholipids.” “Of the three wavelengths, researchers found that baseline levels of FlOP_320 products predicted risk of future hip fracture in the study cohort. (No association was found with FlOP_360 and FlOP_400.) Increased FlOP_320 was associated with greater risk of hip fracture; women in the upper 30% of FlOP_320 readings were found to have 2.67 times the risk of hip fractures of those in the bottom 30%.” “Because FlOP_320 is generated in the presence of metals, its strong association with hip fractures may reflect the co-existing effect of reactive oxygen species and heavy metals,” says Dr. Wu, who notes that the other FlOP products can be generated without metals. Dr. Wu told OTW, “If our results are confirmed in larger studies, FlOP_320 may potentially used as a marker for screening individuals are at risk for hip fracture in addition to DEXA scan.”
ALS and the ice bucket challenge has been getting a lot of media coverage, with over $3 million being raised so far in Canada. What causes Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) ?
Simple. Like most other human diseases it's Oxidative stress or excess free radicals, which C60 Hydrated Fullerenes, an ultra high, safe, enzymatic universal antioxidant from Ukraine neutralize. See Below
Front Cell Neurosci.... 2014 May 13;8:131. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2014.00131. eCollection 2014.
The role of oxidative stress in degeneration of the neuromuscular junction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Pollari E1, Goldsteins G2, Bart G3, Koistinaho J2, Giniatullin R4.
Author information • 1Molecular Brain Research Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland Kuopio, Finland ; Experimental Neurology - Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Neurosciences, Vesalius Research Center, KULeuven - University of Leuven Leuven, Belgium. • 2Molecular Brain Research Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland Kuopio, Finland. • 3Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland Kuopio, Finland. • 4Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland Kuopio, Finland ; Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Physiology, Kazan Federal University Kazan, Russia.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the progressive loss of motoneurons and degradation of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJ). Consistent with the dying-back hypothesis of motoneuron degeneration the decline in synaptic function initiates from the presynaptic terminals in ALS. Oxidative stress is a major contributory factor to ALS pathology and affects the presynaptic transmitter releasing machinery. Indeed, in ALS mouse models nerve terminals are sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) suggesting that oxidative stress, along with compromised mitochondria and increased intracellular Ca(2+) amplifies the presynaptic decline in NMJ. This initial dysfunction is followed by a neurodegeneration induced by inflammatory agents and loss of trophic support. To develop effective therapeutic approaches against ALS, it is important to identify the mechanisms underlying the initial pathological events. Given the role of oxidative stress in ALS, targeted antioxidant treatments could be a promising therapeutic approach. However, the complex nature of ALS and failure of monotherapies suggest that an antioxidant therapy should be accompanied by anti-inflammatory interventions to enhance the restoration of the redox balance. KEYWORDS: ALS; ROS; neurodegeneration; neuromuscular junction; oxidative stress http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24860432
Meredith G. Dixon, MD1,2, Ilana J. Schafer, DVM1,2 (Author affiliations at end of text)
On March 21, 2014, the Guinea Ministry of Health reported the outbreak of an illness characterized by fever, severe diarrhea, vomiting, and a high case-fatality rate (59%) among 49 persons (1). Specimens from 15 of 20 persons tested at Institut Pasteur in Lyon, France, were positive for an Ebola virus by polymerase chain reaction (2). Viral sequencing identified Ebola virus (species Zaïre ebolavirus), one of five viruses in the genus Ebolavirus, as the cause (2). Cases of Ebola viral disease (EVD) were initially reported in three southeastern districts (Gueckedou, Macenta, and Kissidougou) of Guinea and in the capital city of Conakry. By March 30, cases had been reported in Foya district in neighboring Liberia (1), and in May, the first cases identified in Sierra Leone were reported. As of June 18, the outbreak was the largest EVD outbreak ever documented, with a combined total of 528 cases (including laboratory-confirmed, probable, and suspected cases) and 337 deaths (case-fatality rate = 64%) reported in the three countries. The largest previous outbreak occurred in Uganda during 2000–2001, when 425 cases were reported with 224 deaths (case-fatality rate = 53%) (3). The current outbreak also represents the first outbreak of EVD in West Africa (a single case caused by Taï Forest virus was reported in Côte d'Ivoire in 1994 ) and marks the first time that Ebola virus transmission has been reported in a capital city.
Bats provide vital ecologic services that humans benefit from, such as seed dispersal and pest control, and are a food source for some human populations. However, bats also are reservoirs for a number of high-consequence zoonoses, including paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and lyssaviruses. The variety of viruses that bats harbor might be related to their evolutionary diversity, ability to fly large distances, long lifespans, and gregarious roosting behaviors. Every year a festival takes place in Idanre, Nigeria, in which males of all ages enter designated caves to capture bats; persons are forbidden from entering the caves outside of these festivities. Festival participants use a variety of techniques to capture bats, but protective equipment rarely is used, placing hunters at risk for bat scratches and bites. Many captured bats are prepared as food, but some are transported to markets in other parts of the country for sale as bushmeat. Bats also are presented to dignitaries in elaborate rituals. The health consequences of contact with these bats are unknown, but a number of viruses have been previously identified among Nigerian bats, including lyssaviruses, pegiviruses, and coronaviruses. Furthermore, the caves are home to Rousettus aegyptiacus bats, which are reservoirs for Marburg virus in other parts of Africa.
Cytotoxic and antiviral properties of fullerene C60 in the culture of animal cells
*State Scientific-Control Institute of Biotechnology and Strains of Microorganisms (Donetskaya St, 30,Kyiv-151, Ukraine);
**National Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Volodymyrska Str. 64, 01601 Kyiv, Ukraine
***The Institute of Veterinary Medicine of NAAS (Donetskaya St. 30, Kyiv-151, Ukraine)
One of the urgent problems of modern veterinary biotechnology is to solve the complex task that lies at the intersection of chemistry, physics, materials science, biology, veterinary medicine is focused design, synthesis and study of the functional properties of nanomaterials which characterized by high bioavailability and biocompatibility, low toxicity and high specific biological activity.
In our studies, was used C60 fullerene - fullerene in water-soluble form. This compound molecule is nearly spherical, with a diameter of 0.72 nm , the surface of which consists of 60 carbon atoms connected by single or double chemical called " links. Considered that C60- fullerenes are potential pharmaceutical compounds. However, along with a broad perspective on the use of such substances for the prevention and treatment of diseases, there are certain precautions, particularly with regard to the possible toxic effects on biological objects, including on cell.
Therefore, our research started with the determination of cytotoxic properties of C60 fullerene - on cell line BHK -21, which is continuous line origin from Syrian hamster and which is used in many medical and biological research.
In experiments used at least ten holes in plates with cell culture for each drug dilution in culture medium. The plates with cell culture incubated at +37˚ C with 5% СО2 for 96 hours.
Thus, we have found the maximum cytotoxic concentration of compound that was 0,0375 ±0,003 mg/ml (n=3,).
Determined the antiviral activity of C60 - fullerene, using as a biological model coronovirus (virus of transmissible gastroenteritis of swine). Coronoviruses affect both animals and humans, leading in many cases to a high degree of mortality. Investigation of antiviral activity of fullerene on transmissible gastroenteritis virus of swine in the system in vitro, n = 5 (each concentration: 0,15 , 0,075, 0,0375, 0,019, 0,009, 0,005 was tested in 10 holes).
We found that C60-fullerene reduced the infectious properties of the virus by 2.0 TCID 50/ml which is a significant result.
Therefore, preliminary data suggest recommend this compound for further preclinical and clinical studies.
Summary. Aim: To estimate the impact of C60 fullerene aqueous solution (C60FAS) on the rate of transplanted malignant tumor growth and metastasis. Methods: Lewis lung carcinoma was transplanted into С57Bl/6J male mice. Conventional methods for the evaluation of antitumor and antimetastatic effects have been used. Results: The C60FAS at low single therapeutic dose of 5 mg/kg inhibited the growth of transplanted malignant tumor (antitumor effect) and metastasis (antimetastatic effect): the maximum therapeutic effect was found to be of 76.5% for the tumor growth inhibition; the increase of animal life span by 22% was found; the metastasis inhibition index was estimated as 48%. Conclusion: It was found that water-soluble pristine С60 fullerenes efficiently inhibit the transplanted malignant tumor growth and metastasis
1Department of Neurology, Zhongshan Hospital; The State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.
Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a devastating disease of the elderly. The brain is more vulnerable than other organs to oxidative stress, and most of the components of neurons (lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) can be oxidized in AD due to mitochondrial dysfunction, increased metal levels, inflammation, and β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. Oxidative stress participates in the development of AD by promoting Aβ deposition, tau hyperphosphorylation, and the subsequent loss of synapses and neurons. The relationship between oxidative stress and AD suggests that oxidative stress is an essential part of the pathological process, and antioxidants may be useful for AD treatment.